Updated: Sep 27, 2020
A Type A n-gon has (6n+1) yods. The sum of the first (6n+1) integers 1, 2, 3, ... (6n+1) that can be assigned to its yods = ½(6n+1)(6n+2) = (6n+1)(3n+1), so that the arithmetic mean of these integers = 3n + 1. A Type B n-gon has (15n+1) yods. The sum of the integers that can be assigned to its yods = ½(15n+1)(15n+2), so that their arithmetic mean = (15n+2)/2. The arithmetic means are tabulated below for the seven Type A and Type B regular polygons of the inner Tree of Life:
For the simplest polygon — the triangle — the average of its 19 integers is 10 (the Pythagorean Decad) when it is Type A. For the Type A decagon, the average of its 61 integers is 31, the number of EL ("God"), the Godname of Chesed, and for the Type B decagon, the average of its 151 integers is 76, the number of YAHWEH ELOHIM, which is the Godname of Tiphareth. The sum of the 46 integers in the Type B triangle is 1081, the number of Tiphareth. The Type B dodecagon embodies the number of Trees in CTOL (see here) because the average of its 181 integers is 91. The Type A pentagon embodies the number 496 of Malkuth as the sum of the first 31 integers that can be assigned to its 31 yods. This polygon therefore embodies the dimension 496 of SO(32) and E8×E8, the two gauge symmetry groups at the heart of superstring theory that were shown in 1984 to be free of quantum anomalies (see here). The decagon is unique in having Godname numbers as the arithmetic mean of its integers for both Type A (31) and Type B (76) versions.
and 288 = 11 + 22 + 33 + 44 = 1!×2!×3!×4!. Their sum = 7531 = 1 + 251×30. This is generated by assigning the integer 1 to the centre of a Type A pentagon and the number 251 to the 30 yods surrounding it, 251 being the number of yods in the 1-tree with Type A triangles as its 19 triangles (see here). The sum of the 151 internal odd integers in the seven Type A polygons = 3841 = 1 + 48×80. This can be generated by assigning 1 to the centre of a Type A octagon and the number 80 to the 48 yods that surround it. 80 is the number of Yesod and the representation comprises49 integers, where 49 is the number value of EL ChAI, the Godname of Yesod. The sum of the 144 even integers on the sides of the seven polygons = 3690 = 369×10, where
369 = 21 + 26 + 50 + 31 + 36 + 76 + 129
is the sum of the numbers of the Godnames of the first seven Sephiroth.
Collective properties of the sets of seven Type A polygons and seven Type B polygons are listed below:
Type A polygons (1) Number of corners of seven polygons = 48
This is the counterpart in its inner form of the 48 corners, lines & triangles making up the outer form of the Tree of Life (see here). 48 is the number of Kokab, the Mundane Chakra of Hod. It is a basic parameter of holistic systems that embody the divine archetypes. It appears in superstring theory as the kernel of the number 480 (=48×10) denoting the number of non-zero roots of the gauge symmetry group E8×E8. Its representation as the 48 yods on the edge of two interlaced squares (24 yods in each one) illustrates how the Pythagorean Tetrad symbolised by the square defines this important structural parameter of the Tree of Life and Tree of Life patterns. This also expresses the (24+24) division of this number that is characteristic of holistic systems, manifesting in one of the two heterotic superstring theories as the direct product of two similar Lie groups E8, each with 240 roots. It manifests in the octagon as the 24 yods on its boundary and the 24 internal yods surrounding its centre. This 24:24 division of the holistic parameter 48 is characteristic of all sacred geometries (see here and here)).
(2) Number of corners of 48 tetractyses in seven polygons = 55
i.e., it is the tenth triangular number.
(3) Number of yods in seven polygons = 295. This is the number of SLs up to Chesed of the 49th Tree and the number of yods in a Type A 49-gon. It shows how the number 49 of EL ChAI prescribes the yod population of the seven Type A polygons making up the inner Tree of Life. The heptagonal representation of the number 295 shown below:
reveals the seven-fold aspect of its cosmic meaning, for it is the number of SLs up to Chesed (the first of the seven Sephiroth of Construction) of the 49th Tree of Life representing the highest (seventh) subplane of the highest (Adi) plane of the seven planes of consciousness that constitute the cosmic physical plane (see here). The integer 1 at the centre of the heptagon shown above with tetractyses as its sectors denotes the nadir of CTOL. A Type C heptagon has 295 yods:
Amazingly, the Type C heptagon with seven corners embodies the very yod population of the seven types of polygons that make up the inner Tree of Life! The mathematical reason for this is simple to see: the number of yods in a Type A n-gon = 6n +1, so that the number of yods in the seven Type A polygons with 48 corners = 6×∑n + 7 = 6×48 + 7 = 6×49 + 1. The sectors of a Type C n-gon are Type B triangles with 46 yods, so that there are 42 yods per sector. The number of yods in the Type C heptagon = 7×42 + 1 = 7×6×7 + 1 = 6×49 + 1, which is the number of yods in the seven Type A polygons, as well as the number of yods in the Type A 49-gon. The 42 yods per sector correspond to the 42 SLs in every seven overlapping Trees of Life, so that the seven sectors of the Type C heptagon map the (1 + 7×42 = 295) SLs up to Chesed of the (7×7=49)th Tree.
(4) Number of yods in the root edge and the seven polygons = 4 + 295 = 299
is the number of hexagonal yods in the seven polygons corresponding to Sephiroth of Construction (see here) and 48 is the number of their corners. 240 is the sum of the 24 permutations of the four integers 1, 2, 3 & 4 because (1+2+3+4=10) and 4! = 1×2×3×4 = 24. This number is the sum of the numbers of the Godnames of the first six Sephiroth:
240 = 21 + 26 + 50 + 31 + 36 + 76.
It is also the number of roots of the superstring gauge symmetry group E8 (see here). The expressions of beautiful, arithmetic proportion demonstrate par excellence how the integers 1, 2, 3 & 4 are the natural basis for representing the populations of the various types of yods in the seven tetractys-divided polygons that make up each half of the inner Tree of Life. The square symbolizing the number 4 determines the number 288 as the sum of a 4×4 square array of the first 16 odd integers after 1 (see also here). This is also the number of yods that surround a square with 2nd-order tetractyses as its sectors:
(6) Number of yods in the (7+7) polygons surrounding their centres = 576 = 242 = 12×22×32×42 = 1 + 3 + 5 +... + 47, where 36 is the Godname number of Geburah and 47 (= 21 + 26) is the 24 (= 4!)th odd integer and the number of SLs in the 7-tree. It is remarkable that the population of non-central yods in both sets of polygons is determined by this parameter of the 7-tree (the Theosophical "physical plane," or physical universe). The Godname YAH with number value 15 prescribes its SL population because 47 is the 15th prime number. As 576 = 288×2, this number is the number of yods that surround the centre of an octagon with 2nd-order tetractyses as sectors (there are 72 yods per sector and 576 = 8×72; see here).
(7) Number of yods in the (7+7) polygons & root edge = 594. This is the sum of the cubes of 2, 3 & 4 surrounding the central cube of 1 in the Star of David array:
(8) Number of yods lining sides of the 48 tetractyses in the seven polygons = 247
The sum (7) of the seven binomial coefficients forming the right-sloping side of this Pascal's Triangle array of the first 28 binomial coefficients is the number of centres of the polygons. The sum (240) of the remaining 21 coefficients is 240, which is both the number of hexagonal yods in the seven polygons and the number of yods other than centres that line sides of the 48 tetractyses.
(9) Number of yods lining sides of the (48+48) tetractyses in the (7+7) polygons = 494
where 73 is the 21st prime number and the gematria number value of Chokmah ("Wisdom"). (14) Number of boundary yods & centres of the seven polygons = 144 + 7 = 151. This is the 76th odd integer, where 76 is the number value of YAHWEH ELOHIM, the Godname of Tiphareth. (15) Number of yods in the root edge and inside the seven polygons = 155. This is also the number of yods in the root edge, at the centres of the polygons and on their boundaries. In keeping with the meaning of Malkuth, the number of ADONAI MELEKH, the Godname of this Sephirah, determines those yods that create the outer form of the polygons.
The seven separate Type A polygons consist of 55 corners, where 55 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10, and 96 sides of 48 triangles, i.e., they comprise 199 geometrical elements. This is the 100th odd integer, where 100 = 102, showing how the Decad determines the geometrical composition of the inner Tree of Life. 192 geometrical elements surround the centres of the seven polygons. Both sets of polygons comprise 110 corners and 192 sides of 96 triangles, i.e., 398 geometrical elements. The number 110 = 10×11, where 11 is the 10th integer after 1, showing again how the Decad determines the geometrical composition of the inner Tree of Life. 384 geometrical elements surround the centres of the 14 Type A polygons. This number is a parameter of all holistic systems (see here). The 384 geometrical elements comprise 192 corners & triangles and 192 sides. This 192:192 division of the holistic parameter 384 is characteristic of holistic systems (see here). It also has a musical counterpart (see here).
(16) The (7+7) enfolded Type A polygons have 524 yods, of which 80 yods are corners of the (47+47) tetractys sectors of the polygons and 444 yods are hexagonal yods. A Type C polygon with n corners has 42n yods surrounding its centre. Of these 5n yods are corners of tetractyses and 37n yods are hexagonal yods
The fact that the Type C dodecagon contains as many hexagonal yods as the inner Tree of Life is striking evidence of the holistic nature of the dodecagon, as confirmed in many places in this website. It is the single, polygonal version of the inner Tree of Life.
Type B polygons (1) Number of yods in the seven separate Type B polygons = 727, which is the 129th prime number. In this remarkable way, the Godname number of the generative Sephirah Netzach, the seventh Sephirah from the top of the Tree of Life, determines the population of the seven Type B polygons.
(2) Number of yods in the (7+7) Type B polygons = 2×727
The number of integers in this representation = 41 = 26 + 15, i.e., the sum of the numbers of the two Godnames of Chokmah, namely, YAH and YAHWEH.
(3) Two yods of the root edge are associated with each set of polygons. Number of yods in the seven polygons + ½ root edge = 2 + 727 = 729 = 272 = 36 = 93. The number of yods associated with each set of Type B polygons is the cube of 9, the fourth odd integer after 1. This illustrates once more the role of the Pythagorean Tetrad in determining the properties of the inner form of the Tree of Life.
(4) Number of yods in the seven polygons & root edge = 727 + 4
This tetractys-divided decagon with 65 squares of 1, 2, 3 & 4 is the representation of the number of ADONAI (see here). It is remarkable that, when the squares of the integers 1, 2, 3 & 4 are assigned to its yods, their sum is the number of yods in the seven Type B polygons and the separate root edge. This is an example of the potent, mathematical archetype of the Godname of Malkuth expressing through its geometrical representation the yod population of the set of Type B polygons and the root edge.
(5) Number of yods in (7+7) polygons & root edge = 4 + 2×727 = 1458.
(6) Number of yods in the seven polygons other than centres = 727 − 7 = 720 = 1×2×3×4×5×6
This demonstrates the way in which the Tetrad symbolized by the square expresses yod populations of the seven polygons. We saw in the discussion of the seven Type A polygons that they have as many yods surrounding their centres as a square with 2nd-order tetractyses as its sectors has yods surrounding its centre. Another way in which the Tetrad determines the number 720 is as follows: the fourth triangular number is 10, the Decad. This is symbolized by the ten-cornered decagon, which has 720 yods surrounding its centre when its sectors are 2nd-order tetractyses:
The yod population of the inner form of the ten-fold Tree of Life is embodied, appropriately, in this geometrical symbol for the number 10.
(7) Number of non-central yods in the (7+7) polygons = 2×720
(8) Number of non-central yods in the (7+7) polygons & root edge = 1440 + 4
Here is remarkable evidence that the inner Tree of Life has properties that are analogous to the root composition of E8×E8, one of the two gauge symmetry groups describing the unified force between heterotic superstrings
Both these numbers are parameters of holistic systems, e.g., we saw earlier that 384 corners, sides & triangles surround the centres of the 14 separate Type A polygons and that the table of 64 hexagrams forming the basis of the I Ching system of divination comprises 384 lines & broken lines (see here for these and other examples), whilst 336 is a structural parameter of the UPA remote-viewed by Besant & Leadbeater, being the number of circularly polarized oscillations made in a single revolution around its spin axis of each of its ten whorls, encodings of which in sacred geometries are discussed in the section Superstrings as sacred geometry. Notice that the (84+84=168) corners & sides in the triangle, square, pentagon & dodecagon and the 168 corners & sides in the hexagon, octagon & decagon reproduces the 168:168 division of 336 always displayed by sacred geometries. For more examples of these holistic parameters, see The holistic pattern. We find, therefore, that the geometry of the seven Type B polygons embodies both the group-theoretical parameters of E8 and E8×E8 and the structural parameter of the basic unit of matter that Besant & Leadbeater described paranormally 120 years ago and which the author identified over 12 years ago in his book "ESP of Quarks & Superstrings" as the spin-½ subquark state of the E8×E8 heterotic superstring. Anyone who believes that this triple connection could be merely a coincidence also believes in miracles!